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eGuide for International Students

 
 
 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
 
These and many more conversion factors are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. You may find their NIST Metric Pyramid tool handy (and fun) as a non-scientic reference.
 
Temperature: In the United States, the Fahrenheit system is used to measure temperature.
32° Farenheit=0° Centigrade
212° Farenheit=100° Centigrade
 
To convert Fahrenheit to Centigrade: To convert Centigrade to Fahrenheit:
   
number of degrees Fahrenheit= 68
subtract 32 -32
  36
   
  36
multiply by 5 x5
  180
   
  180
divide by 9 ÷9
number of degrees Centigrade= 20
number of degrees Centigrade= 20
multiply by 9 x9
  180
   
  180
divide by 5 ÷5
  36
   
  36
add 32 +32
number of degrees Farenheit= 68
 
For baking ovens try the following Fahrenheit system equivalents:
 
  F C
Very slow 225 107
Slow 300 149
Moderate 350 177
Hot 425 218
Very hot 450 232-260
 
Mass & Weight: In the United States, the standard measures for mass and weight are the ounce and the pound (abbreviated oz. and lb. respectively). To convert grams to ounces, multiply the number of grams by .03529 (an approximation). To convert kilos to pounds, multiply the number of kilos by 2.2046.
 
Equivalents
 
28.335 grams = 1 ounce or oz.
16 ounces = 1 pound or lb.
1 kilo = 2.205 pounds or lbs.
 

Cooking Measurements: Measurements for recipes in the United States are almost always stated by volume rather than by weight.

  • This is true for both liquid ingredients and dry ingredients.
  • When a recipe calls for a cup, a teaspoon, or a tablespoon, it means a standard measuring utensil that may be bought at the local grocery or discount store.
  • It does not mean a china coffee cup or teacup from your table, nor a teaspoon or tablespoon with which you eat.
Abbreviations for volume measures used in cookbooks include:
 
Measure Abbreviation
gallon gal.
quart qt.
pint pt.
cup c.
teaspoon Tsp. or t.
tablespoon Tbsp. or T.
 
These volume measurements relate to each other in these equivalents:
 
1 gallon = 4 quarts
1 quart = 2 pints
1 pint = 2 cups
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces
1 cup = 16 tablespoons
1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
 
Liquid Measurements
 
To convert grams to fluid ounces: To convert fluid ounces to grams:
   
number of grams= 78
multiply by… x0.035
number of fluid ounces= 1.925
   
or  
   
number of grams= 78
divide by… ÷28.35
number of fluid ounces= 1.925
number of fluid ounces= 2
multiply by… x28.35
number of grams= 56.7
   
or  
   
number of fluid ounces= 2
divide by… ÷0.035
number of grams= 56.7
 
Equivalents
 
5 grams or 5 cc = 1 teaspoon
15 grams or 15 cc = 1 tablespoon
30 grams or 30 cc = 2 tablespoons or 1 ounce
     
1 cup = 8 oz.
1 pint = 16 oz.
1 quart = 32 oz.
 
Linear Measure: In the United States, the measures inch, foot, and yard are used for length and width. Area is referred to as square inches, square feet and square yards. The symbolic 'tick marks' are not actually the same thing as a single or double quote punctuation mark’which the tick marks do resemble’and are only used to notate length, not for area.
 
Abbreviations and symbols for length measures are:
 
Measure Abbreviation Symbol
inch in. "
foot ft. '
yard yd.  
 
These linear measurements relate to each other in these equivalents:
 
1 yard = 3 feet
1 yard = 36 inches
1 foot = 12 inches
 
To convert centimeters to inches: To convert inches to centimeters:
   
number of centimeters= 78
multiply by… x0.3937
number of inches= 30.7086
   
or  
   
number of centimeters= 78
divide by… ÷2.54
number of inches= 30.786
number of inches= 2
multiply by… x2.54
number of centimeters= 5.08
   
or  
   
number of inches= 2
divide by… ÷0.3937
number of centimeters= 5.08
 
One's own personal height is measured in feet and inches. For instance, a person might be said to be 5 feet 6 inches tall (or 5' 6"), but is not commonly said to be 66 inches tall (the equivalent expressed in inches only).
 
To convert centimeters to a personal height: To convert a personal height to centimeters:
   
personal height=170 cm.
 
Step 1: convert centimeters to inches
 
170cm.= 170
multiply by… x0.3937
inches= 66.929"
 
Step 2: convert to personal height
a. first find whole feet
66.929"= 66.929"
divide by… ÷12
feet= 5.5774'
 
b. then convert partial feet to inches & round off
 
0.5774''= 0.5774'
multiply by… x12
inches= 6.9
 
c. combine the whole feet with the rounded off inches 
personal height as inches only= 5' 7"
personal height=5' 6"
 
Step 1: convert to inches only
 
5'= 5'
multiply by… x12
inches= 60"
 
  60"
add the remaining inches +6"
personal height as inches only= 66"
 
Step 2: convert inches to centimeters
 
  66"
multiply by… x2.54
height as centimeters= 167.64
Or, better yet, purchase an inexpensive yard stick.
 
Here is a conversion factor list for your convenience:
 
2.54cm. = 1 inch
30.48cm. = 1 foot
91.44cm. = 3 feet or 1 yard
1 meter = 39.37 inches or
3.281 feet or
1.093 yard
 
Long distance is measured by the mile.
  1609.3 meters = 1 mile
1.609 kilometers = 1 mile
1 kilometer = 5/8 mile
1 kilometer = 0.621 mile